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    新能源汽车的这些核心器怎么处理?
    2021-9-22 16:55:18

    控制器作为新能源车辆的大脑,在监测和保护各系统的同时也肩负着对各个指令的请求与发送。

    As the brain of new energy vehicles, the controller not only monitors and protects various systems, but also shoulders the request and transmission of various instructions.

    各控制器之间相互独立又相互制约。相互独立是说不同控制器的功用各有侧重独立运作;相互制约是指各控制器间存在主副关系,在特定情况下主控制器可以向副控制器发送指令使其禁用某些功能。

    The controllers are independent and restrict each other. Mutual independence means that different controllers have different functions and operate independently; Mutual restriction means that there is a master-slave relationship between controllers. Under specific circumstances, the master controller can send instructions to the slave controller to disable some functions.

    这里我们以新能源汽车中的3大核心控制器(BMS/MCU/VCU)为例,来说明三者之间的关系以及各自的功用。

    Here, we take the three core controllers (BMS / MCU / VCU) in new energy vehicles as an example to illustrate the relationship between the three and their functions.

    对于新能源汽车来说,主要的动力源为电能。如何将电能转化为机械能来驱动车辆行驶,这既是关键所在也是技术难点。

    For new energy vehicles, the main power source is electric energy. How to convert electric energy into mechanical energy to drive the vehicle is not only the key but also the technical difficulty.

    三大核心控制器的出现将其成为现实,BMS电池管理系统控制器将动力电池的电能转化为驱动电机能接受的电能;MCU电机控制器在接受到所需的电能后供给驱动电机,实现电能到机械能的转变。而整个过程均是在VCU整车控制器的监管和控制下完成。

    The emergence of three core controllers makes it a reality. The BMS battery management system controller converts the electric energy of the power battery into the electric energy that can be accepted by the driving motor; MCU motor controller supplies the driving motor after receiving the required electric energy to realize the transformation from electric energy to mechanical energy. The whole process is completed under the supervision and control of VCU vehicle controller.

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    电池管理系统

    Battery management system

    作用:

    effect:

    作为动力电池系统中保护和管理的核心部件,不仅要保证电池安全可靠的使用,还要监控电池的状态,提高电池的利用率,防止电池出现过充电和过放电,延长电池的使用寿命。

    As the core component of protection and management in the power battery system, we should not only ensure the safe and reliable use of the battery, but also monitor the state of the battery, improve the utilization rate of the battery, prevent overcharge and overdischarge of the battery, and prolong the service life of the battery.

    同时也是电池和整车控制器以及驾驶者沟通的桥梁,通过控制接触器实现动力电池组的充放电,并向VCU上报动力电池系统的基板参数及故障信息。

    At the same time, it is also a bridge for the communication between the battery, the vehicle controller and the driver. It realizes the charge and discharge of the power battery pack by controlling the contactor, and reports the substrate parameters and fault information of the power battery system to the VCU.

    结构组成:

    Structure composition:

    主要由硬件电路、底层软件和应用层软件组成。

    It is mainly composed of hardware circuit, bottom software and application layer software.

    硬件由主板(BCU)和从板(BMU)两部分组成,从板安装于模组内部,用于检测单体电压、电流和均衡控制,并通过高可靠性的数据传输通道与BCU模块进行指令及数据的双向传输;

    The hardware consists of a main board (BCU) and a slave board (BMU). The slave board is installed inside the module to detect the voltage, current and balance control of the monomer, and conduct two-way transmission of instructions and data with the BCU module through a highly reliable data transmission channel;

    主板安装位置比较灵活,用于继电器控制、荷电状态值(SOC)估计和电气伤害保护等,主板上的微处理器完成总电压采集、绝缘检测、继电器驱动及状态监测等功能。

    The installation position of the main board is flexible, which is used for relay control, state of charge (SOC) estimation and electrical injury protection. The microprocessor on the main board completes the functions of total voltage acquisition, insulation detection, relay drive and condition monitoring.

    应用层软件是BMS的控制核心,包括电池保护、电气伤害保护、故障诊断管理、热管理、继电器控制、从板控制、均衡控制、SOC估计和通讯管理等模块。

    The application layer software is the control core of BMS, including battery protection, electrical injury protection, fault diagnosis management, thermal management, relay control, slave board control, equalization control, SOC estimation and communication management.

    电机控制器

    Motor controller

    作用

    effect

    作为驱动电机系统中的核心部件,通过高低压线束、冷却管路与整车其它系统做电气和散热连接。

    As the core component of the drive motor system, it is electrically and thermally connected with other systems of the whole vehicle through high and low voltage harness and cooling pipeline.

    实现把动力电池的直流电能转换为所需的高压交流电、并驱动电机本体输出机械能。同时还具有通信和保护,实时进行各工作状态和故障检测功能,保护驱动电机系统和整车安全可靠的运行。

    It can convert the DC energy of the power battery into the required high-voltage AC, and drive the motor body to output mechanical energy. At the same time, it also has the functions of communication and protection, real-time working state and fault detection, so as to protect the safe and reliable operation of the drive motor system and the whole vehicle.

    整车控制器(VCU)根据驾驶员的意图发出各种指令,由电机控制器(MCU)响应并反馈,实时调整驱动电机的输出,以实现整车的怠速、前行、倒车、停车、能量回收以及驻坡等功能。

    The vehicle controller (VCU) sends various commands according to the driver's intention, and the motor controller (MCU) responds and feeds back to adjust the output of the driving motor in real time, so as to realize the functions of idling, moving forward, reversing, parking, energy recovery and slope parking of the vehicle.

    结构组成

    Structural composition

    由外壳及冷却系统、功率电子单元(IGBT)、控制电路、底层软件和控制算法软件组成。

    It is composed of shell and cooling system, power electronic unit (IGBT), control circuit, bottom software and control algorithm software.

    其中以功率电子单元模块为核心,辅助驱动集成电路和主控集成电路。MCU对所有的输入信号进行处理,并将驱动电机控制系统运行状态的信息通过CAN线发送给VCU。

    Among them, the power electronic unit module is the core, the auxiliary driving integrated circuit and the main control integrated circuit. MCU processes all input signals and sends the operation status information of drive motor control system to VCU through can line.

    控制电路、底层软件和控制算法软件相互配合,当诊断出异常时,MCU将会激活一个错误代码发送给VCU,同时将对应数据及故障码进行存储。

    The control circuit, underlying software and control algorithm software cooperate with each other. When an abnormality is diagnosed, MCU will activate an error code and send it to VCU, and store the corresponding data and fault code at the same time.

    整车控制器

    Vehicle controller

    作用

    effect

    是实现整车控制决策的核心电子控制单元,VCU在具有整车系统故障诊断保护与存储功能的同时,还具有驱动控制、制动能量回馈控制、整车能量优化管理、充电过程控制、高压上下电控制、防溜车功能控制、电动化辅助系统管理控制、车辆状态的实时监测和显示的功能。

    It is the core electronic control unit to realize the vehicle control decision. VCU not only has the functions of vehicle system fault diagnosis, protection and storage, but also has drive control, braking energy feedback control, vehicle energy optimization management, charging process control, high-voltage power on and off control, anti slip function control, electrification auxiliary system management control Real time monitoring and display of vehicle status.

    通过采集油门踏板、挡位、刹车踏板等信号来判断驾驶员的驾驶意图;同时监测车辆状态(车速、温度等)信息,由VCU判断处理后,向动力系统、动力电池系统发送车辆的运行状态控制指令,并控制车载附件的电力系统。

    Judge the driver's driving intention by collecting accelerator pedal, gear, brake pedal and other signals; At the same time, the vehicle status (vehicle speed, temperature, etc.) information is monitored. After being judged and processed by VCU, it sends the vehicle operation status control command to the power system and power battery system, and controls the power system of on-board accessories.

    结构组成

    Structural composition

    的结构组成,共包括外壳、硬件电路、底层软件和应用层软件,硬件电路、底层软件和应用层软件是VCU的关键核心技术。

    It includes shell, hardware circuit, bottom software and application layer software. Hardware circuit, bottom software and application layer software are the key core technologies of VCU.