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    发动机烧机油的故障解析
    2022-6-8 17:55:51

    在奥迪车的使用当中,有的行驶3-5万公里就开始冒蓝烟,烧机油,不但使机油消耗大,而且使活塞、活塞环和气缸磨损加剧,并污染火花塞,使发动机运转不稳、功率明显下降。出现烧机油的直接原因是机油由活塞和气缸之间窜入燃烧室,以及经曲轴箱通风装置从节气门进气道吸入燃烧室。

    In the use of Audi cars, some start to emit blue smoke and burn engine oil after driving 30000-50000 km, which not only consumes a lot of engine oil, but also intensifies the wear of pistons, piston rings and cylinders, pollutes spark plugs, and makes the engine run unstable and the power drop significantly. The direct cause of oil burning is that the oil enters the combustion chamber between the piston and the cylinder, and is sucked into the combustion chamber from the throttle inlet through the crankcase ventilation device.

    (1)气缸、活塞、活塞环配合对气缸窜油的影响:目前,发动机的润滑都采用压力润滑和飞溅润滑相结合的方式,气抽壁采用飞溅润滑。在工作时,气缸壁、活塞环和活塞之间都布满了机油,当三者配合正常时,机油不会窜上去;当三者配合不正常时,气缸壁和活塞间的机油就会窜入燃烧室,这是引起窜油的主要原因。发动机工作一定时间后,活塞环径向宽度减小弹力减弱,开口间隙变大,密封和刮油作用变差。活塞环槽间隙大,加强了活塞环的泵油作用。气缸和活塞的磨损加大了配合间隙,使间隙的机油增加,活塞上行时机油被刮进燃烧室。而窜油后容易产生积炭,加速气缸磨损,造成恶性循环。

    (1) Influence of cylinder, piston and piston ring coordination on cylinder oil channeling: at present, the engine lubrication adopts the combination of pressure lubrication and splash lubrication, and the air extraction wall adopts splash lubrication. During operation, the cylinder wall, piston ring and piston are full of oil. When the three match normally, the oil will not rush up; When the three are not properly matched, the oil between the cylinder wall and the piston will flow into the combustion chamber, which is the main cause of oil channeling. After the engine works for a certain time, the radial width of the piston ring decreases, the elasticity decreases, the opening clearance becomes larger, and the sealing and oil scraping functions become worse. The clearance of piston ring groove is large, which strengthens the oil pumping function of piston ring. The wear of cylinder and piston increases the fit clearance, which increases the oil in the clearance. When the piston goes up, the oil is scraped into the combustion chamber. However, after oil channeling, it is easy to produce carbon deposition, which will accelerate the wear of the cylinder and cause a vicious cycle.

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    (2)活塞环卡死对窜油的影响:在修理中发现,因活塞环卡死而产生大量烧机油的现象较多。当活塞环卡死在环槽内时,活塞环失去弹性,密封变差,不但在活塞上行时带入燃烧室大量机油,而且活塞做功时大量的高压气体窜入曲轴箱,使曲轴箱内压力增高,飞溅的机油通过曲轴箱通风装置进入进气道。使机油和混合气一起进入燃烧室当发现曲轴箱通风装置窜气严重和节气门内有机油时,多是活塞环卡死所致应及时排除。

    (2) Effect of piston ring sticking on oil channeling: during the repair, it was found that a large amount of oil was burned due to piston ring sticking. When the piston ring is stuck in the ring groove, the piston ring loses elasticity and the seal becomes poor. Not only does the piston bring a large amount of engine oil into the combustion chamber when it goes up, but also a large amount of high-pressure gas flows into the crankcase when the piston works, increasing the pressure in the crankcase, and the splashed engine oil enters the air inlet through the crankcase ventilation device. Make the engine oil and gas mixture enter the combustion chamber together. When it is found that the crankcase ventilation device has serious blowby and there is engine oil in the throttle valve, it is mostly caused by the piston ring sticking, which should be eliminated in time.

    (3)发动机大修质量对气缸窜油的影响:发动机的大修质量对气缸窜油影响较大。气缸的圆度、圆柱度误差及表面粗糙度过大,活塞环水按技术要求与活塞选配中活塞偏缸,气缸中线与曲轴中垂直度超偏,都会产生窜油现象。在保养时,活塞积炭清除不干净,活塞环装反,环口未合理分布及环口间隙太大,都会同程度地加速气缸窜油。

    (3) Influence of engine overhaul quality on cylinder oil channeling: the engine overhaul quality has a great influence on cylinder oil channeling. The roundness, cylindricity error and surface roughness of the cylinder are too large, the piston ring water is selected and matched with the piston according to the technical requirements, the piston deviates from the cylinder, and the perpendicularity of the cylinder center line and the crankshaft exceeds the deviation, which will cause oil channeling. During the maintenance, the piston carbon deposit is not cleaned, the piston ring is installed reversely, the ring mouth is not reasonably distributed and the ring mouth clearance is too large, which will accelerate the oil channeling of the cylinder to a certain extent.

    (4)活塞环的质量对气缸窜油的影响:对新换活塞环行驶不久产生窜油的进口汽车发动机分解、检查发现,气缸油大部分是因活塞环质量原因造成。目前,进口的活塞环有很多质量较差,弹力不足,弹力持久性不好,不能很好适应气缸套的变形,这是目前进口汽车行驶不定期定里程后气缸窜油的主要原因。

    (4) Influence of piston ring quality on cylinder oil channeling: it is found that most of the cylinder oil is caused by piston ring quality after the decomposition and inspection of the imported automobile engine with new piston ring. At present, there are many imported piston rings with poor quality, insufficient elasticity and poor elasticity durability, which can not well adapt to the deformation of the cylinder liner. This is the main reason for oil channeling in the cylinder of imported vehicles after irregular mileage determination.

    (5)机油选用对气缸窜油的影响:机油的粘度影响到润滑油膜的厚度,机油粘度过大过小都会使润滑效能降低,加剧机件磨损,特别是机油过稀时,更易造成气缸窜油。机油变质或受汽油冲淡变稀,都会增加机油耗量。此外,机油加得太多,机油压力过高,曲轴箱通风不良,发动机温度过高,也会加剧气缸窜油。

    (5) Influence of engine oil selection on cylinder oil channeling: the viscosity of engine oil affects the thickness of lubricating oil film. If the viscosity of engine oil is too large or too small, the lubrication efficiency will be reduced and the wear of parts will be aggravated. Especially if the engine oil is too thin, it is easier to cause cylinder oil channeling. Engine oil deterioration or dilution by gasoline will increase engine oil consumption. In addition, too much oil, too high oil pressure, poor crankcase ventilation and too high engine temperature will also aggravate cylinder oil channeling.

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